Major basilica and cathedral The interior of the Lateran Palace was restored in 1838, after it had become very messy. As well as the usual formulaic incantations and boasts, it gives the interesting information that work was abandoned for 35 years after the death of the pharaoh. From left to right, the shields are of Popes Urban V, Pius IX and Gregory XI. This form of porphyry, with white inclusions, comes from the single location. This is because the entablature over the arcades contain gargoyles (water-spouts), indicating that the original roofline was just above. At an early stage it was also nicknamed the Basilica Aurea, "The Golden Basilica", either because of its rich interior decoration or because its inside walls had been revetted with yellow marble (there is archaeological evidence that the floor was). The panelled bronze doors date from 1196, and were made by Uberto and Pietro of Piacenza. Pope Sergius III (904–911) had the basilica completely restored because of the earthquake damage. The altar aedicule has a pair of spirally fluted green serpentine columns with gilded bases and capitals, which flank a bronze statue of the saint by Luigi Valadier. The blue pigment used here and elsewhere on the baldacchino is ultramarine, in mediaeval times a fabulously expensive material derived from lapis lazuli which had its only source in Afghanistan. These were designed by Rainaldi, and sculpted by Giacomo Antonio Fancelli. Above is a little relief of Christ in a scallop-headed niche. Lateraanin Pyhän Johanneksen kirkko), lyhyemmin Lateraanikirkko, on Roomassa Pyhän istuimen eksterritoriaalisella alueella sijaitseva katolinen kirkko. Before the late 19th century, the sacristy provision of the basilica was rather inadequate with the main sacristy immediately behind the Cappella Colonna (see below) and a chapter house for the canons to its west. Each side now has an extant 17th century rectangular window, which is set in a larger partly blocked round-headed window which is 5th century and which is thought to have replaced the window below. Above this in turn is an oval fresco tondo in a lush floral wreath. It is described as being dedicated to the Dormition of Our Lady, or to her Assumption. ), Paul, Peter and Philip. To its north-west is the Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano with its obelisk, and this has been historically the main focus of the church's civic presence. The scriptural allusion is Ps 42:1. The superb surviving monastery cloisters were erected between 1222 and 1232 by Vassalletto father and son, both called Pietro. The panels were originally executed by Barna da Siena (it is thought) in 1369, but were repainted by Antoniazzo Romano and his school in the late 15th century. An 18th century copy of apse and mosaics is near the Scala Santa, but not on the original site which was nearer the basilica's façade and faced the other way. During the synod the basilica was, ominously, severely damaged by an earthquake in the year 896. Substantial alterations throughout the centuries have made some aspects of the form of the first basilica debatable. The main statue shows the pope standing on his green basalt sarcophagus, in a posture as if he were acknowledging the cheers of a crowd. and Gregory the Great by Nebbia. The counterfaçade has a stucco relief coat-of-arms of Pope Clement over the door, and to the right is a 14th century aumbry or holy-oil cupboard, featuring a pair of angels in relief venerating the actual cupboard. The vault of the canopy, over the relic-chamber, has constellations of gold stars on a blue background. The high altar was executed by Cinto de Salvati, and completed in 1293 by Giovanni dell'Aventino and Giovanni di Cosma with his son Lucantonio. The oval central coffer contains a carving of The Assumption of Our Lady. The marble floor is in white and grey trapezoidal tiles. Pope Leo X (1513-22) ordered repairs to the outside of the 5th century dome, but this seems to have failed completely and it was demolished in 1540 under Pope Paul III. Top: St Barnabas by Ricci, St Bartholomew by Nogari and St Simon the Apostle by Pomarancio. The confusion is not impressive -could the art critics actually have a look and decide, instead of copying each other? The developed tradition is that the table was from the home of St Pudens, with whom St Peter stayed as a guest. The 1992-3 Mafia bombing campaign was the result of certain seriously lunatic Sicilian "businessmen" thinking that they could terrorize both the Church and the Italian government. However the main entrance façade of the basilica also has a loggia, and the area available there for a large crowd made this the more convenient location in modern times. The work was by Deodata di Cosma, 1297. Below these in turn, the walls and arch piers were revetted spectacularly with polychrome marbles by Borromini. Above this in turn is a blocked window displaying the Barberini bees again. 4th Century Roman Statue of Constantine in the Portico. This is good evidence of Borromini's original intention of replacing the ceiling with a vault. Above the loggia you can see the façade of the end of the transept. Crocketed pinnacles are at the corners, and below the gables are open lunettes containing bronze fanlight grilles with more vines. Unfortunately it has solid wooden doors, and if these are locked you cannot see anything. The main entrance, leading into the central nave, has a pair of ancient bronze doors installed here by Borromini on the orders of Pope Alexander VII. The first of the two late 19th century sacristies features four statues of saints dating from 1450, namely SS John the Evangelist, Jerome, Augustine and John the Baptist. This means that the territory remains with Italy, but all administration is vested entirely in Vatican City. Some of the basilica's public Masses are also celebrated here, on an altar pro popolo in front of the high altar. Only the gilded ceiling and the Cosmatesque floor were kept, although Borromini had intended to provide a vault for the central nave. Pope Sixtus V (1585-90) oversaw enormous changes to the complex. It features many gilded angels disporting themselves, and a pair of twisted Solominic columns of a style more familiar from the great baldacchino at St Peter's. GegenÃ¼ber der Basilika befindet sich auÃerdem die Scala Sancta (âHeilige Treppeâ). For centuries the lady Fausta, in whose house the synod convened, was identified with Fausta, the emperor Constantine's second wife who was herself a convert and a daughter of his defeated rival. English name: The following description deals with the objects of interest in the inner side aisles first. Mass is celebrated in the basilica itself, according to the basilica's website in June 2018, as follows. In Rome: San Giovanni in Laterano. ARCIBASILICA PAPALE DI SAN GIOVANNI IN LATERANO : L'inaugurazione del sito internet della Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, Cattedrale di Roma, mi offre la possibilità di rivolgere un cordiale saluto a quanti accedono a queste pagine. A 19th century painting of the proceedings is here. There is a small fee to enter them, two euros recently (2015), although the custodian might waive this for clerics and religious dressed properly. Like the well, some of the items were venerated in mediaeval times as rather unlikely relics. An angel and a putto in white marble support the large medallion portrait, below which is the epitaph flanked by a pair of gigantic fronded curlicues. Then the 5th century statue of the emperor was restored by Ruggero Bescapè and set up here in 1737. More angels and putti disport themselves on these. This altar is a so-called "Papal altar", reserved for the Holy Father (although, in practice, permission for Mass to be celebrated on it by others is routinely granted). A pair of Ionic columns in the former marble supports a molded archivolt in the latter stone, between two entablature fragments on posts above the capitals. The statues and reliefs are described in the sources as follows: Left of altar, Prudence and putti by Agostino Cornacchini, relief showing St Andrew Corsini Curing a Pilgrim by Pietro Bracci in memory of Cardinal Pietro Corsini. Torriti's assistant in this was a Franciscan friar called Jacopo da Camerino. The coat-of-arms of the pope in relief is on the keystones of the two archivolts. If you look towards Santa Croce in Gerusalemme from the basilica's entrance, you can see a large bronze sculptural group of St Francis with five of his disciples, which is by Giuseppe Tonnini. one showing a dog-fight. Altar of the Blessed Sacrament - Pier Paolo Olivieri circa 1600. At the ends of the plinth supporting these items are two spirally incised columns. The road network had been mostly abandoned, and the main access to the complex was a driveway from the Via Labicana on the line of the lower end of the present Via Merulana. The second register of decoration is grotesque in style, and consists of stylized vine-scrolls with blossoms on a dark red background. There are five of these piers on each side, with a sixth attached to the counterfaçade. Each arcade of five arches has four pairs of Corinthian columns standing on a continuous wall-plinth, and two pairs of semi-columns attached to the piers on each side. These arms have barrel vaulting embellished with gilded octagonal coffers containing rosettes, four rows for the main arms but only two for the side arms. The left hand chapel is dedicated to SS Rufina and Secunda, local Roman martyrs who used to have a 4th century cathedral basilica on the Via di Boccea near what is now the western suburb of Selva Candida. This is the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, of which the Pope is the reigning bishop. This entablature is supported on pendentives, which are defined by the short coffered barrel vaults of the cross arms. Until late 14th century, … Pope Urban VIII (1623-9) began a massive restoration project in 1625, and you can spot the bees from the heraldry of his family, the Barberini, infesting the interior in several places. It was commissioned in 324 AD by Emperor Constantine. For further details and elucidations on this structure, see here. It is usually referred to as "St. John Lateran", or, in full, "the Basilica of St. John Lateran". Behind it, and following the curve of its outer wall, ran a colonnaded ambulatory or walkway which connected the two inner arches in the west walls of the transept. B&G suggest that the octagonal plan was original, and that the circular foundation plinth was for the sake of stability. This is another part of the 13th century mosaic which might have come from an earlier work, perhaps 9th century. Neri is here because he was an uncle of the pope. The side aisles have lower roofs, which are now flat, and the apse is roofed in lead. Then, it starts in the outer side aisle to the right of the entrance and deals with the chapels and other items in anticlockwise order up this aisle and around the back of the high altar and so back down the left hand outer side aisle. Today’s anniversary reminds us of the power and wisdom of God which flows through Christ’s Church into the world. The cardinal is shown recumbent on his sarcophagus, with a weeper standing at each end. This lower register is separated from the upper by a single-line epigraph recording the commissioning of the original mosaic by Pope Nicholas, and from the large epigraph below by another little single-line text which proclaims that the seat beneath is reserved to the Pope. Over the lintel is the simple epigraph Gregorius XIII Pont. The last of the sacristies has an altarpiece featuring The Adoration of the Magi by Nicolò Martinelli, Il Trometta. It became known as the Scala Pilati, which literally means "staircase armed with javelins". Pierre Legros, Andrea Bregno, Camillo Rusconi, Isaia da Pisa, et.al. Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano. However, this full title is not used for liturgical purposes. Across the main road to the south-east of the palace is a building housing the Scala Santa, the Holy Staircase, and the chapel known as the Sancta Sanctorum. The only way to Santa Maria Maggiore was via a lane to Sant'Eusebio all'Esquilino and then through the Arch of Gallienus. In Republican times the locality of the basilica was a convenient exurban open space outside the Porta Caelimontana in the old Servian Walls, which was used for casual recreational and military training activities. Many pilgrims come here to climb them, always on their knees, while contemplating on the Passion of Christ. This is unfair. The pediment frieze shows scrollwork with putti, also gilded. In 1910, under Pope St Pius X, the Lapidario Ebraico was established here also which is a unique collection of one hundred and thirty seven Roman Jewish epitaphs from ancient cemeteries in Rome (mostly from catacombs on the Via Portuense). However, modern opinion is that neither identification is correct and that the statue and slab do not belong together. Borromini completely re-vamped the side aisles too, dismantling the ancient verde antico colonnades in the process and replacing them with eleven square brick piers on either side having incut corners (including a pair on the transept steps). The ancient plunge-pool was replaced by the present basalt basin (itself ancient, from an unknown bath-house), which was surrounded by a balustrade. Several of those concerned have been identified by recent documentary research. For more on this building, see Sante Rufina e Seconda a Porcareccina. The only documentary source for the foundation is the Liber Pontificalis, first compiled in the 7th century and hence not entirely reliable. Pope Honorius III (1216-27) is on record as supervising restoration work in the basilica. Above this is the lower part of the mosaic, which is interrupted by three large single-light Gothic windows. In 1757 the Lercari family restored it as a mortuary chapel for themselves. This indicates that the Chapter paid for it. So, the present frescoes are hardly 14th century but still look good. These are separated by Corinthian columns, which support a cornice on posts on which stand a row of flaming urn finials. He also commissioned Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello to fresco the interior, resulting in a superb display only known through drawings that Borromeo ordered to be made before he supervised the destruction of the frescoes. The design is attributed to Pirro Ligorio, the structural carpenters were Vico di Raffaele di Lazzaro and Matteo Bartolini da Castello, the fine-detail woodcarvers were Daniele da Volterra and François "Flaminio" Boulanger, the painter was Luzio Luzi and the gilder was Leonardi Cugni. This was the old palace's swan-song. Also, it rusts away in no time. Note that the tracery of the arch on the left has a quatrefoil, but the right hand one has an eight-petalled rose. Controversially, Borromini also removed the ancient verde antico aisle columns, and put them into store. Two pilasters in the same style support the entablature on each side. The frontal has vaguely Cosmatesque detailing, with four little barber's pole columns dividing the field into three. The altar aedicule by Rainaldi unfortunately impedes the view of the mosaic. The fabric of this rebuilding is the wall behind the Loggia. To the left of the entrance to the chapel is the tomb of Pope Innocent III , made by Giuseppe Luccheti in 1891 on orders from Pope Leo XIII. Bay I East has a Cosmatesque tondo with a representation of Christ, part of a collection of items from the demolished Altar of St Mary Magdalen which used to stand in front of the schola cantorum in the nave of the mediaeval basilica. In the earlier 20th century it was much more formal, with low box hedges. It was repainted in the following century, and installed here perhaps in 1684 (the documentary source is ambiguous). In between the windows are two rectangular mosaic panels, showing the symbols of the four Evangelists, and between the outer windows and the corners are two panels showing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. There are four rectangular bas-relief panels, executed in 1736 on the theme of the life of St John the Baptist. The motif occurs in other places too, such as on farms in the countryside that are or were owned by the Lateran Chapter. To the left is a late 15th century marble relief by Luigi Capponi, showing Giovanni Rossi (bishop of Alatri) with St John. The artist responsible was Francesco Cerroti. Kaiser Konstantin war derjenige Kaiser, der durch die Mailänder Vereinbarung im Jahr 313 die Religionsfreiheit im Römischen Reich einführte, darunter also auch das Christentum. The dome rests on an entablature supported by tripletted Ionic pilasters, having high plinths panelled in yellow marble, and to each side is a large shallow arched recess with the keystone touching the entablature. Bay I South has a shrine to St Helena the Empress, mother of the emperor Constantine. The Chapter of the Lateran obtained the property in 1604, but then oversaw a shocking and disgusting series of scandals involving the resident abbey clergy and those of the diocese of Agen. Below these are two large frescoes, painted as if they are tapestries with rolled-up ends and with the borders containing heraldic symbols of Pope Clement. If this is correct, the artist responsible was Deodato Cosma and the cardinal depicted is Giovanni Colonna, who sponsored the altar. The subsequent walls feature fresco depictions from events in the career of Constantine, helpfully labelled. These will do for most purposes -but should be avoided in liturgical contexts. The cloisters of Basilica di San Giovanni in Later. The Lateran is a well-defined locality in an area of 19th century suburban development of little more interest than the vineyards that it replaced. The following is a fair scholarly consensus: The edifice was 100 metres long (almost exactly), and 54.5 metres wide. Beyond this chapel is a memorial to Cardinal Girolamo Casanate 1700 by Pierre Le Gros the Younger. Firstly Gebert the French-born deserved the the [episcopal] seat of the people of Rouen, the metropolis of the fatherland. The chapel has a square plan, with a little rectangular barrel-vaulted sanctuary. The rebuilt apse has four registers of decoration before the conch, the topmost of which is part of the conch mosaic. However there is a persuasive argument that the bath-house was already being used for baptism, because of a continuity in function with the present building. Die âArcibasilica di San Giovanni in Lateranoâ, oder auch Erzbasilika wurde 313 unter Kaiser Konstantin dem GroÃen gegrÃ¼ndet. The portico had six columns supporting an entablature bearing an epigraph announcing the basilica to be the first in dignity of all churches (the predecessor of the present recut inscription), as well as a frieze with lion-head masks and mosaics showing The Donation of Constantine, The Baptism of Constantine, The Beheading of the Baptist, The Boiling in Oil of St John the Evangelist and Pope St Sylvester Defeats the Dragon. The impressive polychrome marble monument is by Filippo Carcani, and has a central niche flanked by a pair of Doric columns in pavonazzetto marble. The floors and walls display polychrome marble work of a high quality, some dating from a restoration ordered by Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) for the Jubilee of 1600. The spandrels in between the arches contain decorative reliefs, mostly on plant-based themes but others with rather odd depictions of mythological events, e.g. The vaulting indicates that the cloisters were given a second storey after an early re-fitting. It is blocked by a diapered grid with Gothic detailing. To the south of the basilica were the living quarters of the resident clergy, later called the monasterium. The white marble altar faces down the nave. Unfortunately this involved the removal of 18th century decoration from the latter, and a rather violent scraping of the former. This work entailed the loss of all the mosaics remaining from the 5th century. It is not known what these chambers were for. Four of the eight sections contain the coat-of-arms of Pope Urban VIII, with the bees again. These revealed the remains of the barracks of the Equites singulari, which are substantial because of the way that the rooms of the edifice had been packed with rubble to form a platform on which to build the basilica. The west entrance is the vehicular access to the paved courtyard, which is now a (very highly treasured) car parking facility for Vicariate employees. The obelisk stands on a tall limestone plinth. This meant an enormous amount of work, but the process is entirely undocumented. A British pilgrim called Mrs Hemans wrote, just before that year: "Few Roman churches are set within so impressive a picture as Santa Croce, approached on every side through those solitudes of vineyards and gardens, quiet roads and long avenues of trees, that occupy such an immense expanse within the walls of Rome. This has been seriously disputed in recent analysis, and the latest consensus is that the present octagonal structure is Constantinian and that Pope Sixtus only altered the interior arrangements as part of a major refit that also involved the side-chapels added by his successors. The blunt end is occupied by a large entrance arch, without imposts but flanked by a pair or ribbed Composite pilasters. It is protected by gilded bronze railings with a barley-sugar twist ,which were installed by Pope Gregory XI. The gigantic statues of Christ and the apostles over the façade of the basilica feature in many views of the city, but the basilica itself hides itself surprisingly well close-up. They bear a dedicatory inscription: In honorem beati Iohannis Baptistae, Hilarus episcopus, Christi famulus offert. The bronze statue of the pope is by Maini, and was cast by Gian Francesco Giadorni. These pilasters stand on very high dado plinths revetted in large panels of a purplish marble, and support an entablature running round the interior which has its frieze in pavonazzetto marble. Outside these, to the left, is the fine Baroque monument to Alessandro Borgia 1767 by Tommaso Righi in the style of Bernini. The original memorial was by Isaia da Pisa, and Borromini incorporated salvaged elements in a truly sumptuous coved aedicule in red marble with green back-panelling. Consecrated: Pope Clement sent an enormous sum of money for rebuilding, but in 1343 a storm damaged the basilica followed by an earthquake in 1347. They assembled in a large meeting-hall which stood on the west side of the palace courtyard north of the basilica, and was fifty metres long with five apses in each side wall and one in the south end where the pope presided as chair. The original source of the name Lateran was the family of the Laterani, which claimed descent from the 4th century BC consul Lucius Sextus Lateranus. The last step has the epigraph Hic est papalis sedes et pontificalis ("This is a papal and pontifical seat"). The little atrium was noted as being especially beautiful, with columns of porphyry and coloured marbles, ancient sarcophagi converted into fountains, marble screens and mosaics. It was a private chapel for the Pope. Look for the dove bearing an olive branch -there are enough of them around. It used to be imagined that the ruins simply somehow eroded away and left open country, but a moment's thought will show how silly this idea is. Affixed to the wall just to the left of the portal are the remnants of a ribbed Corinthian pilaster in white marble, supporting the end of the entablature. This is historically correct, as the hands would have torn free if nailed through the palms during crucifixion. 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